ISSN: 2394-2053 (Print)
ISSN: 2394-2061 (Online)
OJPAS®
Open Journal of Psychiatry & Allied Sciences,
Formerly Dysphrenia



 About Us

The Open Journal of Psychiatry & Allied Sciences (OJPAS®), formerly Dysphrenia is a peer-reviewed academic journal published biannually by Academy Publisher in collaboration with the Society for Mental Health in LAMIC (SoMHiL) on behalf of Academia Dysphrenia.

Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief

Shyamanta Das, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College Hospital, Bhangagarh, Guwahati-781032, Assam, India

editor@ojpas.com

Associate Editor

Samrat Singh Bhandari, MD
Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Sikkim Manipal University, 5th Mile, NH 31A, Tadong, Gangtok-737102, Sikkim, India
Member, International Forum of Teachers (IFT), UNESCO Haifa Bioethics Chair
ojpas.editor@gmail.com, samrat.bhandari@yahoo.co.in
 
Executive Editor
 
Uddip Talukdar, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Medical College Hospital, Jania Road, Joti Gaon, Barpeta-781301, Assam, India
uddiptalukdar@rediffmail.com
 
Managing Editor
 
Utpal Bora, MD
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College Hospital, Bhangagarh, Guwahati-781032, Assam, India
drubindia77@rediffmail.com
 
Assistant Editor
 
Shijo John Joseph, MD
Consultant Psychiatrist, Mar Sleeva Medicity, Palai, Kezhuvankulam, P.O.: Cherpunkal, Kottayam (Dist.), Kerala, India-686584. shijojj90@gmail.com
 
Section Editor: COVID-19
 
Shijo John Joseph, MD
Consultant Psychiatrist, Mar Sleeva Medicity, Palai, Kezhuvankulam, P.O.: Cherpunkal, Kottayam (Dist.), Kerala, India-686584. shijojj90@gmail.com
 
Section Editors: The Resident’s Agora
 
Shijo John Joseph, MD
Consultant Psychiatrist, Mar Sleeva Medicity, Palai, Kezhuvankulam, P.O.: Cherpunkal, Kottayam (Dist.), Kerala, India-686584. shijojj90@gmail.com
 
Nileswar Das, MD,
Senior Resident (Psychiatry), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India
dr.nileswar@gmail.com
 
Members
 
Mythili Hazarika, MA, MPhil, PhD
Clinical Psychologist, Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India
hazarika.mythili@gmail.com
 
Ivana Stasevic Karlicic
Adult and Forensic Psychiatrist, Clinic for Psychiatric Disorders, "Dr Laza Lazarevic", Belgrade, Serbia
ivanastasevic73@gmail.com
 
Dan Joseph Stein, FRCPC, PhD
Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, University of Cape Town & UCT-Affiliated Hospitals, South Africa
dan.stein@uct.ac.za
 
Bornali Das, PhD
Psychiatric Social Worker, Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India
dt.bornali@gmail.com
 
Maheshwar Nathi Tripathi, MD
Consultant Psychiatrist, Mahadeva Neuropsychiatry Centre, Kashi Vidyapeeth, Varanasi-221002, Uttar Pradesh, India
dr.maheshwar@gmail.com
 
Kamlesh Kumar Sahu
Editor-in-Chief, Indian Journal of Psychiatric Social Work
Managing Editor, Journal of Disability Studies
Associate Professor (Psychiatric Social Work), Department of Psychiatry, Level-V, Block-D, Government Medical College & Hospital, Sector 32, Chandigarh-160030, India
withkamlesh@gmail.com
 
Krishan Kumar
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER) (Institute of National Importance, Government of India), Sector 12, Chandigarh-160012, India
keshusony@rediffmail.com
 
Anweshak Das
MD, Consultant Psychiatrist, Guwahati Psychiatric Clinic, Guwahati, Assam, India
drdasanweshak@yahoo.in
 
Unaiza Niaz
MD, DPM, FRCPsych; Consultant Psychiatrist & Psychotherapist; Honorary Member, The World Psychiatric Association (WPA); Honorary Member, Arab Federation of Psychiatrists; Advisory Council Member, Section on Women’s Mental Health, WPA; Distinguish International Member, American Psychiatric Association; Advisory Board Member, International Association of Women’s Mental Health; Vice President, Eastern Mediterranean Region, & Board Member, World Federation for Mental Health (WFMH)
drunaiza@gmail.com, unaizaniaz@gmail.com
 
Leslie Marneau
Clinical Psychologist, Trainer and Consultant, A Bus For Autism, Paris, France
lesliemarneau@hotmail.fr
 
Putul Mahanta
MBBS MD FIAMLE FICFMT, Editor-in-Chief, International Journal of Health Research and Medico Legal Practice (IJHRMLP), Professor, Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Assam Medical College, Barbari, Dibrugarh, Assam 786002, Assam, India
drpmahanta@gmail.com, ptlmahanta@hotmail.co.uk, editor@ijhrmlp.org
 
Russell Franco D’Souza
MBBS, MD (Madras), FCGP (I), DPM (Melbourne), MPM (Monash), CCTMg (Canberra), IFAPA (USA), MHSM (Monash), ABDA (USA), FCHSM (Australia), MUCB (Haifa), Fellowship in International Bioethics Education (MUHS), DSc (Honoris Causa)
Founding Managing Editor of the Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Head, Asia Pacific Division, UNESCO Chair in Bioethics (Haifa), Melbourne, Australia
Executive Director and Dean, Professor of Organizational Psychological Medicine, International Institute of Organisational Psychological Medicine, AUSTRALIA: USA: UK: INDIA. www.iiopm.org
71 Cleeland Street Melbourne, 3175 Australia
M +61435854474 T +61 3 96453388 F +61 3 979467189
5545 N Wickham Road, Suite 110
Melbourne, Florida 32940 USA
M +1 321 424 8751 T +1 321 779 9838 F+1 888 376 9654
russell.f.dsouza@gmail.com
 
Mekhala Sarkar (ডা: মেখলা সরকার), MBBS, MPH (Epidemiology), FCPS (Psychiatry)
Associate Professor (Psychiatry), National Institute of Mental Health, Sher-E-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh
Scientific Secretary, Bangladesh Association of Psychiatrists
Executive Editor, Bangladesh Journal of Psychiatry
mekhala_sarkar@yahoo.com
 
Shahul Ameen
Editor-in-Chief, Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Psychiatrist, St. Thomas Hospital, Kurisummoodu P.O., Chethipuzha Kadavu, Changanassery, Kerala-686104, India
shahul.ameen@gmail.com
 
Prosenjit Ghosh
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Silchar Medical College Hospital, Ghungoor,
Silchar-788014, Assam, India
p_ghosh72@yahoo.com
 
Sujit Sarkhel
Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, 7 DL Khan Road, Kolkata-700025, West Bengal, India
sujitsarkhel@gmail.com
 
Marami Baishya, MSc
Assistant Professor, College of Nursing NEMCARE Foundation, NH 37, Santipur, Mirza, Kamrup, Assam, India. PIN-781125
maramibaishya@gmail.com
 
Shailendra Raj Adhikari, MBBS, MD
Professor of Psychiatry, Chitwan School of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur-10, Chitwan, Nepal
shailendra_adhikary@hotmail.com
 
Antonia Ventriglio, MD, PhD
“Riuniti” Hospital, Unit of Psychiatry, Foggia, Italy; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy-71122
drantonio.ventriglio@gmail.com

Advisory Board

TS Sathyanarayana Rao
Editor, South Asian Societies for Sexual Medicine; Chief Advisor, Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine; Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry; Indian Journal of Geriatric Mental Health; Editorial Board Member, SPF Journal of Psychiatry (SAARC Psychiatric Federation)
President, Indian Association for Geriatric Mental Health; Secretary, Human Sexuality Section, WPA; Member, Positive Psychiatry Section - WPA
Professor,  Department of Psychiatry, No 1111, 1st Floor, 'B' Block, JSS University, JSS Medical College and Hospital, MG Road, Mysore - 570004
www.tssrao.com, www.totalsexsolutions.com
tssrao19@yahoo.com, tssrao19@gmail.com
 
MS Bhatia
Editor, Delhi Psychiatry Journal
Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatry, University College of Medical Sciences & Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095, India
manbhatia1@rediffmail.com
 
Ajai Singh, MD
Editor, Mens Sana Monographs
Mens Sana Research Foundation, 14, Shiv Kripa, Trimurty Road, Nahur, Mulund (W), Mumbai-400080, Maharashtra, India
menssanamonographs@yahoo.co.uk
 
Debasish Basu, MD, DNB, MAMS
Editor, Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry
Professor of Psychiatry, Drug De-addiction & Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh-160012, India
db_sm2002@yahoo.com
 
Vivek Agarwal, MD
Professor, Department of Psychiatry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow-226003, Uttar Pradesh, India
drvivekagarwal@gmail.com
 
Smita N Deshpande, MD, DPM
Consultant, Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatry & De-addiction Services & Resource Centre for Tobacco Control, PGIMER- Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, Park Street, New Delhi-110001, India
smitadeshp@gmail.com
 
Dipesh Bhagabati, DPM, MD
Former Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College Hospital, Bhangagarh, Guwahati-781032, Assam, India
dbhagabati@gmail.com
 
Hemendra Ram Phookun, MD
Former Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College Hospital, Bhangagarh, Guwahati-781032, Assam, India
hrphookun@gmail.com
 
Shailendra Kumar Talukdar, DPM, MD
Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College Hospital, Bhangagarh, Guwahati-781032, Assam, India
drsktalukdar@gmail.com
 
Hiranya Kumar Goswami, MD
Principal cum Chief Superintendent,, Assam Medical College Hospital, Barbari, Dibrugarh-786002, Assam, India
goswamihiranya@yahoo.co.in
 
Suresh Chakravarty, MD
Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College Hospital, Bhangagarh, Guwahati-781032, Assam, India
drsureshchakravarty@gmail.com
 
Rezib-uz Zaman, DPM
Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatry, Silchar Medical College Hospital, Ghungoor, Silchar-788014, Assam, India
drrezibuzzaman56@gmail.com
 
RK Lenin Singh, MD, PhD
Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatry, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Lamphelpat, Imphal-795004, Manipur, India
leninrk@yahoo.com
 
Usha Sarma, MD, PhD
Medical Superintendent, Tezpur Medical College & Hospital, Bihaguri, Tezpur-784010, Assam, India
ushajunu@gmail.com
 
Soumitra Ghosh, MD
Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatry, Tezpur Medical College & Hospital, Bihaguri, Tezpur-784010, Assam, India
drsghosh640@yahoo.co.in
 
Utpal Bora, PhD
Professor, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IITG), Guwahati-781039, Assam, India
drutpalbora@gmail.com
 
Arabinda N Chowdhury
Consultant Psychiatrist, Bradgate Mental Health Unit, Leicestershire Partnership NHS Trust, U.K.
arabindachowdhury985@gmail.com
 
Susmita Hazarika Dutta
5092 Nottingham Place Lane, Apt 202, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27106, USA
hazarika.susmita@gmail.com
 
Balram Pandit
Assistant Professor in Psychiatry, Department of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences, Fiji National University
balram.pandit@fnu.ac.fj
 
Kornilia Hatzinikolaou, PhD
Lecturer of Developmental Psychopathology, School of Early Childhood Education, Faculty of Education, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, 541 24, Thessaloniki, Greece
corinahatzinikolaou@hotmail.com
 
Claudia Juarez Batista, LCP, MSC
Clinical Psychologist, Wellness Consultant, Stress management Expert, Speaker and trainer
Picagregos 214, Lomas de las Aguilas, 01730 Alvaro Obregon, Mexico City, MEXICO
claudiajuarez@transformatuestres.com
 
Rajiv Siotia, FRANZCP, MRCPsych, CCT, MMedSCi, PGCME, MBBS
Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (UK), Lead Consultant in Acute and Bed Based Services, Consultant Psychiatrist, Latrobe Regional Hospital, Traralgon, Adjunct Lecturer, Monash University: Gippsland Campus, Traralgon, Victoria, Australia
rajiv.siotia@gmail.com
 
Siegfried Kasper, MD
Past Chief Editor, The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Professor Emeritus, Medical University of Vienna, Center for Brain Research, Spitalg. 4, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
siegfried.kasper@meduniwien.ac.at

David J Nutt, DM, FRCP, FRCPsych, FMedSci
Centre for Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Brain Sciences, Imperial College, London, W12 0NN, UK
d.nutt@imperial.ac.uk
 
Ho Suk Yin (Ho Shu-Shian), MD, MPH, MS
Child Developmental Assessment & Intervention Center, Taipei City Hospital, No 145, Zhengzhou Road, Datong District, Taipei City 10341 Taiwan (ROC)
dam81@tpech.gov.tw
 
Samai Sirithongthaworn, MD
Director of Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital, and Acting Director of Rajanagarindra Institute of Child Development, Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, 196 Moo 10, Donkaew, Maerim, Chiang Mai, 50180 Thailand
samais2001@yahoo.com
 
Ricardo Guinea, MD
Executive President, Word Association for Psychosocial Rehabilitation (WAPR)
Hospital de Día Madrid, C/ Manuel Marañón, 4 – 28043 Madrid
guinea@wapr.info, www.wapr.info
 
Kamal Nath, MD
Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatry, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Medical College Hospital, Jania Road, Jatigaon, Barpeta-781301, Assam, India
dr.kamalnath@gmail.com
 
Dr. Tanica Lyngdoh, MD, MSc, PhD
Additional Professor, Indian Institute of Public Health Delhi, Public Health Foundation of India, Plot 47, Sector-44, Institutional Area Gurgaon, Haryana-122003, India
tanica.lyngdoh@iiphd.org

Ombudsman

Suresh Bada Math, MD, DNB, PGDMLE, PGDHRL, PhD in Law (NLSIU)
Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry; Chief of Tele-Medicine & Community Psychiatry; Consultant, Forensic Psychiatry and OCD, In-charge of Legal Aid Clinic; National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore, India
sureshbm@gmail.com, sbm@nimhans.ac.in


Editorial Assistants

Jeemoni Lahkar, Devyani Borkataki, Rijusmita Sarma, Arunima Dutta, Tanushree Sharma, Gitali Kakati, Hiranya Sarma, Hemanga Dutta
 
Statistical Consultants
 
Hiranya Saikia, M. Sc., M. Phil., Ph. D.
Senior Lecturer (Biostatistics), Department of Community Medicine (SPM), Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh-786 002, Assam, India
hiranya.saikia@gmail.com
 
Sakhee Bujarbarua, Pune
Arunava Sen, Dhubri
Bhaskar Kakati, Pathsala
 
Legal Advisor
 
Bhaskar Barman, B.Sc., LL.B.
Practicing Advocate in Gauhati High Court and other Subordinate Courts
Kharghuli, Upper Luitpur, Guwahati-781004, Kamrup (Metropolitan), Assam, India
barman.bhaskar@gmail.com
 
Reviewers

Aarti Jagannathan, Abhishek Priyadarshee, Adarsh Dharendra, Adonis Sfera, Akanksha Mohta, Amereesha C, Amool Ranjan Singh, Anil Kumar, Ankita Paul, Antonia Ventriglio, Apurba Saha, Arabinda N Chowdhury, Archana Chhetri, Arif Ali, Arun Kumar V, Arundhati Bag, Arunima Gupta, Arunjyoti Baruah, Atanu Baruah, Atmesh Kumar, Balram Pandit, Basudeb Das, Bemma Konthoujam, Bharathi G, Bhupendra Singh, Bindu Annigeri, Bobby Hmar, Bornali Das, Budhiswatya Shankar Das, Chandranshu Chaturvedy, Claudia Juarez Batista, Debajit Gogoi, Debjit Roy, Deepak Pandey, Deepak S Tiwari, Deepanjali Medhi, Deepti Kathpalia, Dharmender Kumar Nehra, Dhrubajyoti Bhuyan, Dhrubajyoti Chetia, Diganta Das, Dipesh Bhagabati, Dushad Ram, E Ananda Reddy, Farhana Rahman, G Ragesh, Gitumoni Konwar, Gobinda Majhi, Gopal Das CM, Gorky Medhi, Harshavardhan Sampath, Hemendra Ram Phookun, Hemendra Singh, Hiranya Saikia, Indrajeet Banerjee, Ivana Stasevic Karlicic, Jagdish Sadiza, Jashandeep Singh, Junu Devi, Kakoli Nath, Kamal Narayan Kalita, Kamal Nath, Kamala Deka, Kamlesh Kumar Sahu, Kangkan Pathak, Karnik Kishore, Kaveri Saxena, Kinga Choden Chewang, Kornilia Hatzinikolaou, Krishan Kumar, Lakshmana G, Lakshya Basumatary, Leslie Marneau, M Raghavi, Maheshwar Nath Tripathi, Manas K Kalita, Marami Baishya, Md. Zeya Ansari, Mekhala Sarkar, Mona Srivastava, Mythili Hazarika, Nabanita Barman, Narayan R Mutalik, Naresh Nebhinani, Naveen Grover, Navoneela Bardhan, Nikhil Nayar, Nileswar Das, Niranjan Hebbar, Nurnahar Ahmed, Partha Choudhury, Pinaki Chakravarty, Poreddi Vijayalakshmi, Pradeep Bodkhe, Pradeep Kumar, Pradip Kumar Thakuria, Pranita Sarmah, Prasanta Kumar Roy, Prasad Kannekanti, Prashant Srivastava, Priyajyoti Chakma, Priyaranjan Avinash, Prosenjit Ghosh, Purushottam, R Sreevani, Raaj Konwar, Rajeev Dogra, Rajesh Kannan, Rajiv Siotia, Ranjan Kumar, Ravi Philip Rajkumar, Ravikumar S, Reni Thomas, Renjith R Pillai, Rizwana Quraishi, Rukmalal Sharma, Sachin Arora, Sachin Ratan Gedam, Sakhee Bujarbarua, Samrat Singh Bhandari, Sanjiba Dutta, Santanu Ghosh, Santanu Nath, Santosh Ramdurg, Sashibha Barman, Satyajeet Singh, Shahul Ameen, Sheikh Shoib, Shijo John Joseph, Shiva Kumar BK, Shyamanta Das, Shuvabrata Poddar, Siddharth Sarkar, Simanta Talukdar, Simran Bedi, Sinu E, Sohini Banerjee, Soma Hazra, Soumik Sengupta, Soumitra Ghosh, Subhash Das, Subrata Naskar, Sucharita Mandal, Sudeshna Chakrabarti, Sujit Sarkhel, Sunil Kumar, Supratim Datta, Supriya Agarwal, Suresh Bada Math, Suresh Chakravarty, Susmita Hazarika Dutta, Suvvari Nagaraju, Syed Yasin Shahtaz Emanee, Tejus Murthy, Uddip Talukdar, Umar Musa Usman, Unaiza Niaz, Utpal Bora, V Sujaritha, V Venkata Kiran, Varun Kumar Singh, Vibha Sharma, Vidhya Sagar K, Vivekananda Lahan, Wasim Ahmad

Editorial Office 10, C.K. Agarwalla Road, Ambari, Uzan Bazar, Guwahati-781001, Assam, India
editor@ojpas.com
 
Open Journal of Psychiatry & Allied Sciences, formerly Dysphrenia is published and distributed by-
Academy Publisher
20, Kushal Konwar Path, Chenikuthi Hillside, Guwahati-781003, Assam, India
academypublisher@outlook.com
 
e-Publisher and e-Distributor: IndianJournals.com

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