Open J Psychiatry Allied Sci. 2016;7:36-40. doi: 10.5958/2394-2061.2015.00020.8. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

A comparative study of depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with smoking pattern in caregivers of patients of casualty and outpatient departments.

Purushottam, Singh B, Kumar K, Gupta R.


Background: Smoking is prohibited in India at all the public places including hospital premises, but people with habit of smoking are not able to abide the rules strictly. Somehow, level of dependence and stress along with other psychological variables like anxiety and depression play key roles in smoking in the hospital premises. Methodology: Present study aimed to know the level of dependence and other psychological variables like depression, anxiety, and stress in the caregivers of patients of casualty and outpatients departments. Seventy five participants were recruited purposively from the hospital premises. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)- Hindi were administered. Result: Participants reported nicotine dependence was associated with psychological variables like mild to moderate level of depression, anxiety, and stress. Caregivers of casualty patients were having high level of stress than caregivers of outpatients. Conclusion: It can be concluded that psychological variables play a significant role in nicotine dependence.



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